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Universe and rotation (43 articles 2020.+16.-19.y.) hot The universe is rotating, after all (2013/14/15 y.) Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe


Вселенная и вращение (40 статьи 2020.+16.-19.г.) hot Вселенная всё-таки вращается (2013/14/15 г.) Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса


Svemir i vrtnja (43 članaka 2020. +16.-19.) hot Objavljeni članci (2013, 14, 15.) Svemir, što je to (2010.) U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom (knjiga 2008.) Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

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Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise) 2020.y.
DOI: Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal

The discussion on the values of redshift, as well as blueshift, is based on a large increase in new evidence that in the whole volume of Universe there are gravitationally-bound objects (galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies) „Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters, including both ‘major’ and ‘minor’ mergers” [1].
That adds to a great diversity of galactic movement directions and their diverse appearances to an observer.
The accent here is at the point of "clearing the early Universe" and asks questions about how these types of radiation could be measured if all galaxies were created in the early stages of Universe, which had started emitting these types of radiation. At the same time, some questions are asked about
„With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [2] i.e., why the actual measured values of redshift are not applied.  

1. Introduction
The article deals with the newest measured data for the most distant galaxies with a significant redshift, for which there are two values, co-moving distance - light travel distance.
A special attention is dedicated to the difference between a value of redshift and the transformation into a distance below 13,8 Gly, distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving);  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance ULAS J1120+0641<).
As a starting point of this discussion I use the mainstream claims that the first types of radiation originated  320.000 – 380.000 years after a hypothetical beginning or creation of Universe and the spreading speed of Universe is always lower than the spreading speed of radiation (waves). 
The method of verification is the usage of a sequence of relations with mainstream evidence in a single place to eliminate the possibility of manipulation with data and conclusions. To speed up the release of this article, I will use tables and photographies already published in my articles [3], [4], [5], [6] and used in discussing other topics.

2. Values of blueshift and redshift presentation
For already some time science faces the problem of redshift value, which is determined very differently at the same distances; also, for the same value of redshift (z) there are very different distances and the speeds of withdrawal from (and approaching to) an observer, in the whole volume of Universe. Nowadays, as well as in the early stages of discovering new galaxies, the existence of blueshift has been ascribed and related only to the local group.
There is a similar quantity of galaxies with redshift and blueshift in our local group. 

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part)

galaxies, local groups Redshift km/s Blueshift km/s

Sextans B (4.44 ± 0.23 Mly)   300 ± 0  
Sextans A 324 ± 2  
NGC 3109 403 ± 1  
Tucana Dwarf 130 ± ?  
Leo I 285 ± 2  
NGC 6822    -57 ± 2
Andromeda Galaxy   -301 ± 1
Leo II (about 690,000 ly)  79 ± 1  
Phoenix Dwarf 60 ± 30  
SagDIG   -79 ± 1
Aquarius Dwarf   -141 ± 2
Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte   -122 ± 2
Pisces Dwarf    -287 ± 0
Antlia Dwarf 362 ± 0   
Leo A 0.000067  
Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal    -354 ± 3 
IC 10   -348 ± 1
NGC 185   -202 ± 3
Canes Venatici I ~  31  
Andromeda III   -351 ± 9
Andromeda II   -188 ± 3
Triangulum Galaxy   -179 ± 3
Messier 110   -241 ± 3
NGC 147 (2.53 ± 0.11 Mly)   -193 ± 3
Small Magellanic Cloud 0.000527  
Large Magellanic Cloud - -
M32   -200 ± 6
NGC 205   -241 ± 3
IC 1613   -234 ± 1
Carina Dwarf 230 ± 60  
Sextans Dwarf 224 ± 2  
Ursa Minor Dwarf (200 ± 30 kly)   -247 ± 1
Draco Dwarf   -292 ± 21
Cassiopeia Dwarf   -307 ± 2
Ursa Major II Dwarf   - 116 
Leo IV 130  
Leo V ( 585 kly) 173  
Leo T   -60
Bootes II   -120
Pegasus Dwarf   -183 ± 0
Sculptor Dwarf 110 ± 1  

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part) with redshift and blue shift km/s [3]

As technology advances and the quantity of the observed galaxies increases, many galaxies with blueshift (i.e., those that approach to an observer) outside our local group were discovered. All those galaxies that are gravitationally-bound (large and small mergers, the collision of galaxies – interactive galaxies) are to be added to those galaxies having spectral blueshift. Although we, the observers, notice their more or less expressed redshift, all of these galaxies exclusively experience blueshift between each other, due to approaching or collision. Recent research have discovered 200.000,0 galaxies in the interaction. [7]

Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift

Designation VLG…(blue shift)

NGC4419 −383
VCC997 −360
KDG132 −100
VCC1129 −105
VCC1163 −564
VCC1175 −118
VCC1198 −470
IC3416 −198
VCC1239 −672
VCC1264 −539
IC3435 −150
IC3445 −470
IC3471 −235
IC3476 −280
IC3492 −604
NGC4569 −345
VCC1750 −258
VCC1761 −269
VCC1812 −351
VCC1860 −124
IC0810 −188
IC3036 −126
IC3044 −298
VCC087 −267
NGC4192 −246
NGC4212 −199
VCC181 −267
A224385 −204
IC3094 −275
VCC237 −423
IC3105 −284
VCC322 −323
VCC334 −350
VCC501 −224
IC3224 −100
VCC628 −540
VCC636 −113
IC3258 −593
IC3303 −427
VCC802 −318
IC3311 −287
VCC810 −470
VCC815 −866
VCC846 −845
NGC4396 −215
VCC877 −212
NGC4406 −374
VCC892 −784
VCC928 −395
IC3355 −126
VCC953 −563
Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift (and negative speeds) at the distance of about 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc). [8]

At the distances above 70 Mly the values of (mostly) blueshift or approaching (the galaxies seen from Earth) are annihilated, also due to the increase in distance, which is the reason to decrease the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Above 70 Mly our instruments read redshift, regardles of approaching or withdrawing of an object from an observer.

However, at the distances above 70 Mly and below them
(„NGC 1.600 is 149,3 Kly away and its speed is 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c is 35 Mly away and with the speed of (a red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  2.975 ± 27, and the galaxy
NGC 280 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  3.878!
At the distance of 52 ± 3 (M86) there is a blue shift (-244 ± 5 km/s)  that is also present with the galaxy M90 at the distance of 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), while the other galaxies at the same distance (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99 (except NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) are with a positive sign and completely different speeds.“ [3])
we can read different values of redshift for the same distances or the same redshift value for the galaxies that have very different distances.

Table 3. Red shift /distance

  Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster Red shift (z) Distance M ly
1 Leo_Cluster 0,022 368,6
2 ARP 87 0,023726 330
3 Abell 2152 0,041 551
4 Hydra_Cluster 0,0548 190,1

1 Abell 671 0,0502 600
2. Abell 1060 0,0548 190,1
3 Abell_1991 0,0587 812
4 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
5 Laniakea Supercluster 0,0708 250
6 Abell 2029 0,0767 1063

1 Abell 383 0,1871 2485
2 Abell 520 0,2 2645
3 Abell_222(3) 0,211 2400

1 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4000
2 Bullet Cluster 0,296 3700
3 Abell 2744 0,308 3982
4 CID-42 0,359 3900

1 Abell_370 0,375 4775
2 3C_295 0,464 4600
3 Musket Ball Cluster 0,53 700
4 Abell 754 0,542 760

1 MACS J0025.4-1222 0,586 6070
2 Phoenix Cluster 0,597 5700
3 RX J1131-1231 0,658 6050
4 ACT-CL J0102-4915 0,87 4000

1 Lynx Supercluster 1,26, 1,27 12000
2 Twin Quasar 1,413 8700
3 XMMXCS_2215-1738 1,45 10000
4 Einstein Cross 1,695 8000
5 TON 618 2,219 10,400
6 EQ J100054+023435 4,547 12200
7 z8 GND 5296 7.5078±0.0004 13100

1 A2744 YD4 8,38 13200
2 UDFy-38135539 8,6 13100
3 GRB 090429B 9,4 13140
4 Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13200

Table 3. As redshift increases, the distance of the objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than "expected") or remains similar. [5]

It is very well known in science that the intensity of radiation decreases due to the increase of distance (which is obvious when at night we look at the stars with bare eyes).
„The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19  on Jupiter. 
The average intensity of the solar radiation, in W/ m², is as follows: 9 116.4 on Mercury; 1 366.1 on Earth; 50.5 on Jupiter; 0.878 on Pluto. Wikipedia
„The interaction of space and radiation directly influences the temperature of an object. On the following objects' surfaces it is as follows: 440°K on Mercury; 288°K on Earth; 152 on Jupiter16. The space around the objects has the same decreasing curve starting from the Sun towards the end of the system. The same goes for the dark side of the objects. The lowest temperature on Mercury is 100°K, on Uranus 49°K, on Pluto 28°K, in the Oort cloud 4°K. During observation, a compensation for the atmospheric influence and the interior temperature of an object needs to be taken into consideration, as these are the factors of interference when comparative data are being acquired.“ [10]
Although this is common knowledge, astronomers do not apply it in determining the real distance of objects that are more or less distant in the volume of Universe and the increase of redshift is related only to the increase of distance (so-called speed of galaxies' withdrawal from an observer). The evidence mentioned above, which encompass the whole – reachable with modern instruments – volume of Universe, point out that the increase of redshift is directly related to the decrease of the measured intensity of incoming waves and its value is corrected, depending on whether an object withdraws or approaches an observer. If these two values are applied, then the confusion that was created when applying only the increase of speed with the objects withdrawing further from us disappears.

It has to be stated clearly that, due to this concept, we have neither realistic values of positioning the distances of objects nor the observed volume of Universe. The further the distance, the weaker are the radiation, while redshift increases and is not limited to predetermined fixed constructions that do not allow a realistic overview of Universe.

3. Comoving distance- light travel distance
We are going to check the reality of these parameters, which are strictly imposed to scientists, from the angle of very limiting factors, presented nowadays by the scientific mainstream, and convince ourselves in credibility of their application and the validity of results.
If all theories are excluded, picture 1 should approximately present real values of measurement of objects in Universe (as well as those objects that are going to be discovered in near future, due to the ongoing progress of technology).

Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly
the universe 13,8 Gly
Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly

Mainstream science claims that 13,8 Gly is a total value of Universe, regardless of simultaneous evidence (claims)
„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“
„With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc) and data from published measurements: [12]

With a redshift of 5.34, light from this galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.5 billion years to reach us. But since this galaxy is receding from Earth, the present comoving distance is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years.
ULAS J1120+0641
(at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7.

Subsequently it was reported (December 2012) to possibly be at a record-breaking redshift z = 11.9 using Hubble and Spitzer telescope data, including Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF).
The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years).
There are a number of different distance measures in cosmology, and both "light travel distance" and "luminosity distance" are different from the comoving distance or "proper distance" generally used in defining the size of the observable universe[16][17] (comoving distance and proper distance are defined to be equal at the present cosmological time, so they can be used interchangeably when talking about the distance to an object at present, but proper distance increases with time due to the expansion of the universe, and is the distance used in Hubble's law.

The galaxy has a comoving distance (light travel distance multiplied by the Hubble constant, caused by the metric expansion of space) of about 30 billion light years from Earth.

Z8 GND 5296
Due to the expansion of the universe, this position is now at about 30 billion light-years (9.2 Gpc) (comoving distance) from Earth.
Q0906 + 6930
But since this galaxy is receding from Earth at an estimated rate of 285,803 km/s[1] (the speed of light is 299,792 km/s), the present (co-moving) distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc).

The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang . Redshift z=7.213.

The existence of redshift above the value (z) 5 pointed out that if (z) continues to grow, the concept of mainstream – 13,8 Gly (Big Bang) – is going to fall apart. Nowadays, the instruments register the value (z) of 11,9. When there is an overwhelming resistence from reactionary institutions and scientists, despite the newest measurements, then there appear unbelievable new ideas that do not belong to physics nor they represent science. The theme that is discussed here is one of them.

Figure 2. The Expanding Universe
The universe
Figure 2. The Expanding Universe – history (my compilation)

If there was a Big Bang, all the waves from that time should be approaching from a single direction, as shown in the figure 2. If radiation started for the first time 320 000 – 380 000
years after the explosion, during the so-called period of clearing the compact thick mass, then that radiation is impossible to measure today, no matter what mathemathical method may be used in the process. The reason to it is that all galaxies are created inside that mass that started emitting radiation. Since mainstram science also disagrees with the idea that the expansion of Universe or matter movement was faster than the spreading speed of waves in the space (which is still dubbed vacuum by the same mainstream), it can be seen that so-called measurements from that time are impossible to have been done.

Figure 3. The Early Universe
The universe
Figure 3. The Early Universe 320,000-380,000 years after the Big Bang, points 1-4 of Milky Way

We measure the objects, the age of which is estimated by mainstream to be withdrawn into past approximately as far as to the so-called early Universe, when the emission of radiation started. Points 1-4 in the so-called early Universe are some of the positions where our galaxy originated (Milky Way: 13.8 ± 4 billion years is age for BD +17° 3248; about 13.5 billion-years-old, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 B ..).
Within the most distant galaxies must be objects of similar age. Milky Way has a redshift (z) 0, the outermost galaxies have a redshift (z) 11.
Early Universe is also related to a small diameter, because the expansion has been taking place during all 13,8 Gly, due to which a contemporary volume of Universe should be created. If it was true that this small diameter of Universe started emitting radiation, besides the need for it to arrive from a single direction, it would have been obvious that this radiation left so-called early Universe with a diameter of only four times the diameter of our galaxy (under the condition that the expansion had been taking place at the speed of light). The universe has about 100 billion galaxies.
The deepest radiation of the early Universe needed to travel through only  200.000 ly in order to leave our Universe. The other problem is that the mainstream claims that Universe spreads ever faster, because the most distant galaxies show the most important redshift.
However, it is forgotten here that the mainstream also claims the most distant galaxies are the oldest galaxies.

GN-108036 The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang Redshift z=7.213.
GN-z11 ≈32 billion ly (9.8 billion pc) (present proper distance); ≈13.4 billion ly (4.1 billion pc) (light-travel distance); Helio radial velocity 295.050 ± 119.917 km / s

M33 -0,000607  (z) 2,38-3,07  Mly distance -179± 3 km/s
M64 0,001361   (z) 24± 7  Mly 408±4  km/s
CID-42  0,359    (z) 3,9  Gly 89.302 km/s
MS 1054-03

0,8321   (z)

6,757 Gly 246.759  km/s

So, what is correct here: that the most distant galaxies withdraw at the fastest speed, or that the oldest galaxies had been withdrawing at the fastest speed?
If the most distant galaxies are at the same time the oldest, then the fastest were the galaxies in the far past, so-called protogalaxies – and that is opposite to the claim that Universe spreads ever faster.
The next table shows that radiation incoming from the distances of more than  
12 Gly from all directions of the volume of Universe are measured.
Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

  Galaxy Right ascension Declination Red shift Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A 02h 39m 54.7s −01° 33′ 32″ 6,56 12,8
2 SXDF-NB1006-2 02h 18m 56.5s −05° 19′ 58.9″ 7,215 13,07
3 TN J0924-2201 09 h  24 m  19,92 s -22 ° 01 '41,5 " 5,19 12,523
4 UDFy-38135539 03h 32m 38.13s −27° 45′ 53.9″ 8,6 13,1
5 A2744 YD4 00h 14m 24.927s −30° 22′ 56.15″ 8,38 13,2
6 BDF-3299 22h 28m 12.26s −35° 09′ 59.4″ 7,109 13,05
7 SSA22−HCM1 22h 17m 39.69s +00° 13′ 48.6″ 5,47 12,7
8 EQ J100054+023435 10h 00m 54.52s +2° 34′ 35.17″ 4,547 (280.919 km/s) 12,2
9 ULAS J1120+0641 11h 20m 01.48s +06° 41′ 24.3″ 7,085 13,05
10 ULAS J1342 + 0928 13h 42m 08.10s +13h 42m 08.10s 7,54 13,1
11 GRB 090423 09h 55m 33.08s +18° 08′ 58.9″ 8,2 13
12 IOK-1 13h 23m 59.8s +27° 24′ 56″ 6,96 12,88
13 A1703 zD6 13 h 15 m 01.0 s +51° 50′ 04′ 7,054 13,04
14 Q0906 + 6930 09h 06m 30.75s +69° 30′ 30.8″ 5,47 12,3
15 MACS0647-JD 06h 47m 55.73s +70° 14′ 35.8″ 10,7 13,3

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [6]

The table shows galaxies from 00h 14m 24.927s to 22h 28m 12.26 s equatorial and −35° 09′ 59.4″ to +70° 14′ 35.8″ to the north/south from the celestial equator. Namely the measurements of galactic distances, advocated by the mainstream, indicate that similar distances are measured in all directions. These measurements represent the volume of Universe as being opposite to their claims of total maximum age of Universe of 13,8 Gly. The forms of radiation (measured recently) above 12 Gly approach from all parts of the volume. 
Now, from the table that recalculates real distances above 5 (z) and less into Big Bang constructs, it is again obvious that the diameter of Universe is twice as big as 13,8 Gly. When "real" values of  correct interpretation of redshift are included 
(With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] (Q0906 + 6930) light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). (Wikipedia)
there is another problem. 12,3 billion light-years multiplied with 2 makes 24,6 billion light-years, which is by 1,4 Gly less, if a limiting condition that radiation and expansion have been moving at the same speed is taken into consideration. The same difference continues to grow when (z) grows:
ULAS J1120+0641 Redshift 7.085±0.003[1]; distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving[2];  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance), the difference is 3,05,
UDFy-38135539 (z) 8,6; The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs[13] (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years), the difference is 270 Gly.
 Here, the data should also be included, that for dist. 2.4 Gly we measure red shift (z) 0,211 (Abell_222(3); za dist. 12,0 Gly we measure (z) 1,26, 1,27 (Lynx Supercluster) and other data from Table 3.
The galaxy  GN-z11  dist. 13,39 Gly has (z) 11,09  and it has a more significant redshift by 10,63 (4) than  Lynx Supercluster (1,26(7) 12.9 billion light years) but the distance is larger only by 0,49 Gly.
For the distance of 0,7 Gly Musket Ball Cluster there is a value of 0,53 (z), while the difference here is 10,63 Gly. The difference of (z) 10,63 matches Abell 1835 IR1916  which has (z) 10 and recommended age (distance) of 13,2 Gly. 
Let us repeat that:
„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“  „With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [12]
The rotation of Universe (instead of expansion) that is based on the similar principles as the rotation of clusters of galaxies or stars, is also unable to accept such confused data, because there are no very significant deviations by the volume of cluster. The internal galaxies move slower than the external ones, but make a single orbital cycle approximately at the same time. Under these conditions the measured value of redshift (z) and current distance between the measured objects are approximately the same. In the case Universe would be rotating, its diameter is presented in the table 4 and if the definition of redshift value, according to the mainstream, is used, the diameter goes above  25 Gly.
When including the decrease of wave intensity (with the increase of speed, currently used by the mainstream) as a dominant value in determining distances of objects in Universe, it would completely remove the existence of two values of interpreting distance or Comoving distance- light travel distance. Also, the obstacles to calculate real values of redshift would be gone. Very large quantity of objects (measured recently) will be the part of the volume of our Universe, a part of them will be waves incoming from the neighboring universes (our local group of universes).
„By applying the analogy of the ascending sequence of events, the more we are distanced from the source of radiation, the lower are the temperatures. Between the multi-universes, they are a bit closer to the absolute zero. The temperatures decrease as the wholes grow. An endlessly large volumetric belt of energy is expanding after the last ascending whole and the temperature there is absolute zero.
By the analogy, inside this belt there is an endless quantity of the wholes, similar to that one, but it is very likely that the whole with the absolute zero temperature in it could be the outer and the last whole in the hierarchy that goes further into the 3-D infinity (at least the infinity as humankind understands it).„ [13]  

4. Conclusion
With the transited distance, waves lose their intensity that is registered by the increasing redshift (Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878 [3]).
Confronting the evidence, that in recent time there are 200 000 of merging or colliding galaxies and have blueshift among themselves, some people are persistent in continuing that the increase of the galactic speed exclusively affects the value of redshift. A significant sum of evidence states there is also a redshift in those galaxies that are approaching to an observer (but only those that are further than 70 Mly away, while those that are closer than that register a blueshift).
By continuing to use such a platform, unbelievable fabrications occur, which have no place in physics. They distort real measurements and instead of science they try to incorporate into physics some "values" that do not belong to it.
Measurements should be presented exclusively within realistic values and there is no need for subsequent embellishments to preserve such structures that exceed the limits of physics.
It is necessary to determine real values of the influence of the radiation intensity weakening  (with a constant and slow increase of speed of the distant galaxies in their orbits inside Universe) within the redshift value. The clusters of galaxies have rotations that are different from zero and due to their constant orbital rotation it seems to an observer that galaxies have very different directions of movement. Generally, they travel in the orbit of their cluster, as a dot on a planet, a star that rotates together with its planet inside their galaxy, which rotates further in its cluster and that cluster within its supercluster and finally all together rotate in Universe.

[1].  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ 2015.  David   Harvey1,2 , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[2]. "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database" Results for 0901+6942. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
[3]. Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2018, GSJ© 2018 Weitter Duckss
[4].   American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Paper Number: 3011059 
Paper Title: How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? Nov. 2018. W.Duckss
[5]. Vol 1, No 4 (2019), The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe, Weitter Duckss, Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
[6]. Effects of Rotation Arund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe, Weitter Duckss, Volume 8 – February 2019
[7]. 21. lis 2019. - Record-number of over 200,000 galaxies confirm: galaxy mergers ignite star bursts Two galaxies in the process of merging. Credit: NASA/ESA/
[8]. ID Karachentsev, 9. srp 2010. - 2 List of blueshifted galaxies in Virgo. According to the Virgo ... Table 1. List of Virgo cluster galaxies with negative radial velocities. Designation.
[9].  International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 408, The observation process in the universe through the database, Slavko Sedic (W.Duckss)
[10].  Meszaros, Attila; et al. (2009). "Impact on cosmology of the celestial anisotropy of the short gamma-ray bursts". Baltic Astronomy. 18: 293–296. arXiv:1005.1558Bibcode:2009BaltA..18..293M
[11]. 2013/14. Why is the universe cold? W. Duckss


This article has more than 16 000 visits (only on my page) (Nov./07.2018 - 11/11.2019.)
The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems
Published: Nov. 7, 2018. in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Author, Weitter Duckss, Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

[1]. W.Duckss,  „Constant proces“
[2]. W.Duckss 7/2018
[3]. W.Duckss
[4]. W.Duckss..
[5] W.Duckss
[6] W.Duckss.. 
[7] W.Duckss  „Rotation of an object“
[8] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[9] Nov. 20, 2017 "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[10] W.Duckss „What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?“, Article No 7.
[11] W.Duckss Article No 2.
[12] W.Duckss „The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color“ Article No 1.
[13] W.Duckss 
[14]  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey1,2∗ , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[15] W.Duckss  „Why did CERN fail?“ Article No 3.
[16] W.Duckss "What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?" Article No 7.
[17] W.Duckss „Why is the Universe cold?“
[18] W.Duckss
[19] W.Duckss there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?“ Article No 3.
[20] W.Duckss   [21] W.Duckss  „Observing the quasars through rotation“ „The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars“ Article No 2. [22] „Supermassive Black Hole’s Dizzying Spin is Half the Speed of Light“ Article written: 5 Mar , 2014Updated: 23 Dec , 2015 by Elizabeth Howell [23] March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"
[24] „CALIFA reveals Prolate Rotation in Massive Early-type Galaxies: A Polar Galaxy Merger Origin?“ Athanasia Tsatsi, Mariya Lyubenova, Glenn van de Ven, Jiang Chang, J. Alfonso L. Aguerri, Jesús Falcón-Barroso, Andrea V. Macciò (Submitted on 17 Jul 2017)      [25] APM 08279+5255 etc [26]
[28] „The Milky Way Galaxy“  
[29] W.Duckss „Functioning of the Universe“ [30] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[31] Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss
[36] W.Duckss  Https://
[37] W.Duckss „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss

Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;

The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe new
Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: November 2019

This article completes the circle of presenting the process of the constant growth of objects and systems and the topics to complete it consist of the visible matter violent disintegration and its re-creation inside the Universe. A constant process of the visible matter disintegration is presented as the end of the process, the proportions of which are gigantic, and the creation of the visible matter as the beginning of it.
The disintegration of particles disturbs the balance of the Universe's wholeness; despite the enormous loss of the visible matter, the Universe is constantly growing.
After having postponed it for a while, this article discusses the age of objects and the Universe as a consequence of the process of the constant matter growth. The acquired results are completely different from those, offered by the renowned experts of the time.
The articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], with this one, too, make the integral part of the complete circular process of matter growth inside and outside of our Universe.

Keywords: disintegration of matter; particle formation; the age of the Universe

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to unite the total processes of the constant matter growth inside the Universe, based on the independent research, the use of databases of generally accepted, easily verifiable evidence for the broadest community of readers. This article is a summary of the materials inside the process of the constant matter gathering, with the articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], due to gravity or the law of universal gravitation.
The disintegration of matter is a process of turning the visible matter into the invisible matter and energy and it exists in the whole of the Universe. The loss of the enormous quantities of matter is replaced with the process of the visible matter constant growth out of the invisible matter inside the space or the whole of the Universe.
The age of the objects is analyzed through the time needed for matter to gather into dust, asteroids (comets) and increasingly larger objects, star systems, galaxies and finally the Universe.

[1]. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 29 July 2008. Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.
[2]. Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Mars Fact Sheet"National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
[3].  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[4]. Williams, David R. (23 December 2016). "Saturn Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017
[5]. Niemann, H. B.; et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe" (PDF). Nature438 (7069): 779–784. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..779Ndoi:10.1038/nature04122PMID 16319830
[6]. New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron, J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 – Published 1 November 1937
[8].  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive   W. Duckss
[9].    „How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?“ 2.8. Light   W. Duckss
[10]   „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.1 The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe,   W. Duckss
[12]. Is the Sun Made Of? Table of Element Composition
[13]. Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system   W. Duckss
[14]. Astr. Soc. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stx2640 "Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta" 
Anaïs Bardyn,  Donia Baklouti,  Hervé Cottin,  Nicolas Fray,  Christelle Briois, John Paquette,  Oliver Stenzel,  Cécile Engrand,  Henning Fischer,  Klaus Hornung,  Robin Isnard, Yves Langevin,  Harry Lehto,  Léna Le Roy,  Nicolas Ligier,  Sihane Merouane,  Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay,  Jouni Rynö,  Rita Schulz,  Johan Silén,  Laurent Thirkell, Kurt Varmuza,  Boris Zaprudin,  Jochen Kissel,  Martin Hilchenbach
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 469, Issue Suppl_2, July 2017, Pages S712–S722
[15].  Category:Interacting_galaxies
[16].   W. Duckss
[17]. GSA Data Repository 2018087 Ge et al., 2018, A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization: Geology,
[18].  When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, W. Duckss


Small, fast-spinning hot stars are not White Dwarfs new
Croatian        Pусский 
"White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars"
Author(s): Weitter Duckss
Download Full PDFRead Complete Article
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019

In order to determine the density of white dwarfs and other stars I used a database and created several relations, such as mass/volume of different star types, to create comparable dana, the values of rotation, the percentage of the objects orbiting around a central object and the explanation how different speeds of rotation, if unused, influence the irregular derivation of the gravitational results. Some other factors, essential in creating real values in astrophysics, are also analyzed here.  The results acquired in such a way reveal a real image, which is impossible to perceive if analysing only a small or limited quantity of stars and other objects. It doesn't work without a larger sequence of relations of different parameters.
The research represents the interweaving of data for stars when indicators start displaying comparable results.  The rotation speed value is closely related to star types, as presented in the tables 4 and 6. At the same time it defines the temperature level of an object, but only faintly affects its density. Density mildly decreases with the increase of the rotation speed, but magnetic field value increases strongly. 

Keywords: White Dwarfs; hot stars; rotation speed  

1. Introduction
The article analyses several parameters, included in several relations, based on which real data representing white dwarfs could be created, in the terms of their real density and some other factors that ascribe white dwarfs into that type of the celestial objects.
Star types are related to the speed of rotation around an object, in the relation with temperature. The influence of rotation is on the magnetic field value, on the percentage of objects in the orbit and on the orbital speeds. Tables 3, 7, 8 and 9 show that objects with the same mass can be classified into groups of many star types. If the effects of the star rotation are ruled out, then a proper answer for such an outcome is not possible to find, because a similar quantity of mass has to produce similar values.
There are more than 270 links in 14 tables, leading towards the database, in which a reader can check the source of information (reference). The goal of this is not to dispute or to support the mainstream points of view, but to introduce real data checking, which is available these days in the form of the official scientific measuring. The topic on matter is not limited to white dwarfs, but it rather analyzes all star types and the centers of galaxies.


[1]. 272 linnks type RX J1131-1231HD 183263 bJupiter; GQ Lupi b; dist. 330 AU; BI 253 etc. in one to multiple steps leads to the source
[2]. How do star densities work?
[3]. How to Calculate Stellar Radii
[4] „White Dwarf Stars“  Last Modified: December 2010
[5].  "The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars" Shmuel Balberg and Stuart L. Shapiro∗ Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801
[6].  February 4, 2009 by fraser cain, „White Dwarf Stars“
[7]. „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars, W.Duckss
[8].  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[9]. Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation W.D.
[11].  Star Mass and Density june 13, 2018 / Emma
[12].  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W.D.
[13]. Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
[14]. Rea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus
[15]. Proteus, Triton, Nereid
[16]. Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon


2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life new

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 july 2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.

[1].  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2].  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[4]. „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“



Demoliranje Hubble's law, Big Bang, osnova "moderne" i crkvene kozmologije

English  Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology
Pусский Снос закон Хаббла, Big Bang, основа “современной” и церковную космология

„Ako su dva predmeta predstavljani kugličnim ležajevima i prostornim vremenom istezanjem gumenog lima, učinak Dopplera uzrokovan je valjanjem kuglica preko listova kako bi se stvorio neobičan pokret.  Kozmološki crveni pomak događa se kada su kuglični ležajevi zaglavljeni na listi i list je rastegnut.“ Wikipedia
Dobro, provjerimo to na našoj lokalnoj skupini galaksija (tablica iz moga članka „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

Hubble constant "Za većinu druge polovice 20. stoljeća vrijednost procijenjeno je između 50 i 90 (km / s) / Mpc . (danas postoji nekoliko konstanti, sve su oko 70 km/s)."
Opet ne valja nešto sa zakonom i konstantom!  M90 je udaljena 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly i gle čuda, ima plavi pomak od −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
Galaksije na udaljenosti 32,6 Mly prema, tko zna čijoj konstanti, trebaju imati oko 700 km/s, na dvostrukoj udaljenosti od 65,2 Mly trebaju imati brzinu udaljavanja oko 1.400 km/s, itd.
Zanimljivo je da

NGC 1.600 je udaljena 149,3 Kly i ima brzinu 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c
je udaljena 35 Mly ima brzinu (red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010
je udaljena 140 Mly i ima brzinu od 2.975 ± 27!
NGC 280 je udaljena 464 Mly i ima brzinu od 3.878! ...

Ovi dečki i cure koji vrše mjerenja su nešto promašili ili je neupotrebljiv Hubble´s zakon i konstanta (bilo čija vrijednost konstante).

Na udaljenosti od 52 ± 3 (M86) imamo plavi pomak (-244 ± 5 km/s) koji imamo i kod galaksije M90  na udaljenosti 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), dok su ostale galaksije na istoj udaljenosti (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99, NGC 4419) sa pozitivnim predznakom (osim NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) i potpuno različitim brzinama.



Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

English Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Pусский Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса


U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom ( knjiga- 2008.g.)

Kratka knjiga. Građa knjige je o Svemiru, utkana je u svakodnevnicu i poratna zbivanja, prožeta humorom i zamišljenim razgovorima sa autorima radova o kojima se raspravlja dok nastaje novi rad.


1 Rasprava sa Hawkingom   2 Fotoni javite se
3 Hubbleova konstanta   4 CERN-ova unaprijed izgubljena bitka ...


Članci su objavljeni u:

Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: "Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)" 2020.y.

DOI " The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe" November 2019

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" march 2019

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, International Journal of Sciences july 2019.

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019 White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars

The Intellectual Archive Journal
DOI:„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“; April 2019.

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems" november 2018 2017 .y. 5.2017.y. 30.7.2017.y. 7/2018 31.08.2017.y. 13.10.2017.y. 11.2017.  2018.y. 2018 Duckss profil) Universe and rotation The observation process in the universe etc. и т.д.

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